Neeraj Kumar, Anita Yadav, Sachin Gulati, Kanupriya, Neeraj Aggarwal, Ranjan Gupta
Malathion and parathion are organophosphate pesticides known for their high toxicity to insects and low to moderate toxicity to humans and other mammals. We studied the antigenotoxic potential of curcumin and carvacrol to combat malathion and parathion-induced DNA damage. Tail moment (TM) as measured by the comet assay was used as a biomarker of genotoxicity. To determine the antigenotoxic potential of curcumin and carvacrol, heparinized fresh blood from healthy individuals was treated with malathion (30 μg/ml) and parathion (2.5 μg/ml) in the presence of curcumin and carvacrol. Curcumin at concentrations of 25 and 50 μg/ml significantly reduced (p<0.05) TM compared to samples exposed to malathion only. Curcumin at concentrations of 10 and 15 μg/ml also exerted an antigenotoxic effect on parathion-exposed samples. Similarly, carvacrol at concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 μg/ml showed a significant (p<0.05) protective effect against both pesticides. We observed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in TM when samples were treated with malathion and parathion in the presence of curcumin and carvacrol. We also studied the effect of polymorphisms of the genes GSTM1 and GSTT1 on the genotoxicity induced by both pesticides. However, we did not observe any significant association (p>0.05) of GSTM1 and GSTT1 polymorphisms with malathion and parathion genotoxicity.